Los derechos humanos: una preocupación neurálgica en la respuesta mundial al VIH

 

La , el  y los  están inextricablemente interconectados. En las respuestas al  hay que velar por que se protejan y se promuevan los derechos humanos. A su vez, la promoción y la protección de los derechos humanos reduce el riesgo y la vulnerabilidad ante la infección por el  y mejora la eficacia de los programas contra el . Esas poblaciones más vulnerables y expuestas al  son a menudo también las que más riesgo corren de que se violen sus derechos humanos. Las políticas y programas sobre el  del sector de la  deben promover los derechos humanos y emancipar a los individuos para que puedan ejercer sus derechos.

El derecho a la salud es esencial en la respuesta al VIH. A la vez que recibimos noticias alentadoras de que la epidemia de VIH se está estabilizando en la mayoría de las regiones del mundo, está claro que son demasiado numerosas las personas que todavía no tienen acceso a unos servicios esenciales que pueden prevenir la infección por el VIH y salvarles la vida. El tratamiento antirretroviral sigue estando al alcance solo de un tercio de las personas que lo necesitan. Aun con la ampliación de los programas para prevenir la transmisión maternoinfantil del VIH, en 2009 solo el 53% de las embarazadas infectadas por el VIH pudieron recibir tratamiento para impedir que se infectaran también sus hijos lactantes.

Las poblaciones más expuestas a la infección por el VIH, incluidos los consumidores de drogas inyectables, profesionales del sexo, hombres que tienen relaciones con otros hombres y personas transexuales, son también las que tienen menos acceso a unos servicios de prevención, tratamiento y atención de la infección por el VIH que tanto necesitan. Por ejemplo, la cobertura de los programas de reducción de daños seguía siendo escasa en 2009. De los 92 países que proporcionaron información, 36 tenían programas de distribución de agujas y jeringas y 33 ofrecían terapia de sustitución con opioides.

Las personas que viven con el VIH no solo deben gozar de su derecho a la salud sino también de su derecho a acceder a servicios sociales cruciales tales como los de educación, empleo, vivienda, seguridad social e incluso de asilo, en algunos casos. Velar por los derechos de las personas con VIH es una buena práctica de salud pública, pues mejora la salud y el bienestar de los afectados y hace más eficaces las actividades de prevención. Muchos y diversos países han aprobado legislaciones encaminadas a prevenir la  de las personas con VIH. Sin embargo, en muchos casos esas leyes no se cumplen adecuadamente y persiste la  de las personas con VIH y de las poblaciones más expuestas.

La estigmatización y la discriminación siguen socavando las respuestas al VIH. El temor a que sus familias y amigos los eviten, sus comunidades los marginen o se les niegue el empleo y otros servicios es a menudo la razón por la cual muchos no se presentan a las pruebas de detección del VIH o a los servicios de VIH. Demasiado a menudo, son las actitudes y los comportamientos negativos del personal de salud lo que hace inaccesibles e inadmisibles los servicios de salud a las personas que más expuestas están a la infección por el VIH, y que más necesitan los servicios de prevención, tratamiento y atención. Las personas con VIH, los consumidores de drogas, los profesionales del sexo y los hombres que tienen relaciones con otros hombres deben poder recurrir a unos servicios de salud donde se sientan seguros y donde se les preste la mejor atención posible y exenta de prejuicios.

La incapacidad de proteger los derechos humanos aumenta la vulnerabilidad y puede impulsar las epidemias de infección por el VIH. En el África subsahariana, las mujeres y las niñas son especialmente vulnerables al VIH; el 80% de las mujeres con VIH se encuentran en esa Región. En Europa oriental, más del 50% de los casos de infección por el VIH se registran entre personas que se inyectan drogas. En Francia, los Países Bajos y España, entre un tercio y las tres cuartas partes de las nuevas infecciones por el VIH se concentran entre los migrantes.

En vísperas de un nuevo decenio, hemos de corregir las leyes, políticas y reglamentos que aumentan la vulnerabilidad y el riesgo al VIH, impiden el acceso a los servicios de salud o vulneran los derechos humanos, en particular para las poblaciones vulnerables y más expuestas. En casi 80 países, las relaciones sexuales entre personas del mismo sexo constituyen un delito, y en seis países se castigan con pena de muerte. En más de 50 países y territorios, las personas con VIH soportan restricciones a los viajes y a la elección de lugar de residencia. En muchos países los consumidores de drogas se mandan a prisión o se los somete a programas de rehabilitación obligatorios, en lugar de proporcionarles un tratamiento eficaz. El sector de la salud tiene que desempeñar un papel crucial en la promoción de planteamientos y argumentos de salud pública cuando se elaboran las leyes y cuando otros sectores desarrollan estrategias.

En el día de hoy, exhorto a todos los sectores a que protejan los derechos humanos, incluido el derecho a la salud, y que combatan la discriminación. La colaboración con las personas con VIH es fundamental para dar una respuesta eficaz al VIH, y los Estados Miembros deben ser conscientes de los compromisos contraídos en la Declaración Política de 2006 sobre el VIH/SIDA para promover la mejoría de los entornos jurídicos y sociales con el fin de que la población pueda acceder a las pruebas de detección del VIH, a la prevención y al tratamiento.

La OMS está firmemente comprometida con el objetivo de lograr el acceso universal a los servicios de VIH más neurálgicos. Sin embargo, ello no será posible a menos que nos aseguremos de que se protegen y se promueven los derechos humanos de todos, en todas partes.

 


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