El rostro del VIH/SIDA es un rostro de mujer: 26% de los nuevos casos de VIH se dan en mujeres jóvenes

La frase “el rostro del /SIDA es un rostro de mujer” es cada vez más sentida y comprobada. Las mujeres son más susceptibles que los hombres a la infección, por múltiples causas. Sumado a esto, la  sexual integral,  y la  no están integradas a los programas de  y reproductiva.

El 26% de los nuevos casos de transmisión del VIH se presenta en mujeres de 15 a 24 años. Las mujeres son más susceptibles que los hombres a la infección, por múltiples factores. Falta de educación, pobreza y disparidad económica aparecen como las causas socioeconómicas más claras.

Por otra parte, la violencia o el temor a la violencia combinada con la falta de servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva y la dificultad del acceso a estos son también parte de los principales factores que facilitan la propagación del VIH entre mujeres y niñas.

En la actualidad el número de mujeres que viven que con VIH es superior al de los hombres. Aunque inicialmente la epidemia afectó mayoritariamente a hombres, hoy casi la mitad de los 40 millones de personas que viven con VIH son mujeres. Las tasas más altas de transmisión se registran en países donde la epidemia se ha generalizado y donde la transmisión es principalmente heterosexual, a menudo en el marco del matrimonio.

El problema principal es que la educación, la prueba del VIH y la atención del SIDA no están integradas a los programas de salud sexual y reproductiva, según reporta ONUSIDA en su informe “Treinta años de SIDA: Las naciones en la encrucijada”.

La sexualidad sigue siendo un tema tabú en la educación de las niñas, lo que provoca un aumento del riesgo de adquirir infecciones de transmisión sexual. La protección contra el estigma, la violencia y la defensa de los derechos humanos son esenciales para responder efectivamente a la propagación del VIH entre mujeres y niñas. Además, el acceso a métodos anticonceptivos y a un aborto seguro debe complementar una ley de salud sexual y reproductiva que proteja y brinde garantías sanitarias a las mujeres y las niñas.

La falta de integración entre la  del VIH y la salud sexual y reproductiva, combinada con prejuicios acerca de qué grupos son más vulnerables a contraer el virus, provoca que los proveedores de servicios de salud no estén preparados para atender adecuadamente las necesidades de salud sexual de la población de mujeres y niñas.

Las protecciones legales son fundamentales también y deben estar en funcionamiento para poder aplicarlas con el objetivo detener la violencia contra las mujeres en ámbitos laborales y personales.

El enfoque de los planes y programas nacionales debe ser integral. Que la información esté a la orden del día para que las mujeres y niñas conozcan sus derechos y puedan exigir la puesta en práctica de la atención de sus necesidades, tanto de aquellas que viven con VIH como de las que están en riesgo de contraerlo. La integración de los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva es la respuesta principal que pueden brindar los Estados.

Fuente: Corresponsables Clave


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