Epidemias silentes asociadas al VIH

 

Los ponentes del Congreso Nacional de  manifiestan su inquietud por la extensión del virus del papiloma entre varones con VIH que mantienen relaciones con otros varones, y que alcanza ya al 80% del colectivo

Expertos de GeSIDA, el Grupo de Estudio de  de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC), han expresado este jueves su preocupación por otras epidemias asociadas al virus del  y, particularmente, por la del virus del papiloma humano (), la enfermedad de  más frecuente y el primer causante de la aparición de cánceres.

En el marco del III ‘Congreso Nacional de GESIDA y al que asistieron más de 400 especialistas del ramo, los ponentes coincidieron en advertir del problema de las coinfecciones, y concretamente de las tres más prevalentes: las del virus de Epstein-Barr, que puede favorecer el desarrollo de linfomas; el virus de la , que provoca en ocasiones cáncer de hígado; y el VPH, responsable del cáncer de cuello de útero y del .

Respecto al VPH, los expertos señalaron que existen 19 tipos virales de VPH, llamados de alto riesgo, que se asocian a la práctica totalidad de los cánceres de cuello de útero y la mayor parte de los cánceres anales, tanto en mujeres como en varones.

La infección por VPH se contrae por transmisión sexual, al comienzo de las relaciones sexuales, de tal manera que antes de los 20 años ya ha infectado a más del 70% de los adolescentes. El  no previene la transmisión, y el riesgo aumenta con el número de parejas sexuales.

La infección suele desaparecer espontáneamente entre a los dos años, aunque pueden existir reinfecciones. Durante la infección, el VPH modifica la estructura de las células del epitelio de cérvix o del ano (displasia) y, al cabo de años de infección persistente, esas mismas lesiones pueden resultar en cáncer invasor.

En España, los casos de cáncer de cérvix son escasos, seis por cada 100.000 mujeres al año, en gran parte debido a los programas de detección temprana. La aparición de cáncer anal es aún menos frecuente, con un caso por cada 100.000 personas.

Con todo, los expertos manifiestan su preocupación por la extensión del virus del papiloma entre varones con VIH que mantienen relaciones con otros varones, y que alcanza ya al 80% del colectivo, que es precisamente el que concentra la mayoría de los nuevos casos de transmisión.

La epidemia de cáncer anal por VPH en hombres que practican sexo con otros hombres alcanza valores de 120 casos anuales por 100.000  (‘Hombres que tienen relaciones Sexuales con otros Hombres’), un valor que jamás se ha dado en mujeres. El mayor número de parejas sexuales de los , y el daño inmunológico que provoca el propio virus del VIH son los responsables.


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